pNetwork's technology stack is entirely comprised by open-sourced components.
From TEEs to applications built on top of portals, everything is transparent and verifiable.
Trusted Execution Environments (TEEs) are hardware-isolated sandboxes that provide security features. Anyone can execute critical code with an attestation from the tech manufacturer certifying that the process has been executed correctly. The trust model is therefore moved from the operator of the hardware to the tech manufacturer.
The pTokens peg-in and peg-out processes are granted by a set of TEE operators (validators), that cooperate to jointly trigger the issuance of pTokens (peg-ins) or the release of the underlying asset (peg-outs).
By levarging this multi-TEE approach different operators ensure there is no single point of failure for the ptokenised assets.
The Trusted Execution Environments securing the pTokens infrastructure represent an additional layer of protection for the network.
Operations happen with the shared effort of validators that jointly generate the relevant key-pairs and jointly sign transactions authorising the peg-in and peg-out of assets leveraging a Multi-Party computation technique.
The pNetwork DAO is another central piece of the whole infrastructure. It helps the pNetwork community govern the network and take decisions.
On a higher level, each bridge is usually comprised of a pair of smart contracts. The vault contract on the native chain is where the tokenised collateral is stored, each time a peg-in operation happen. A token contract on the host chain is responsible to mint/burn pToken according to the amount of assets stored as collateral.
Portals can be thought as more abstract layer of interactions, as they are built right on top of an existing bridge. By communicating with the underlying bridge contracts, Portals enable a whole bunch of applications, from transfering NFT, to more complex cross-chain applications.